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Go Back       Himalayan Journal of Applied Medical Sciences and Research | Volume:3 Issue:3 | May 10, 2022
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DOI : 10.47310/Hjamsr.2022.v03i03.001       Download PDF       HTML       XML

Relationship of Knowledge, Attitude, and Motivation with Obedience Using Mask as a Transmission of COVID-19


Agung Sutriyawan*1, Hairil Akbar2,3, Syamsu A. Kamaruddin4

1Bachelor Programme Public Health, Bhakti Kencana University, Bandung, Indonesia

2Bachelor Programme Public Health, Graha Medika Institute of Health and Technology

3Doctoral Student of Sociology Study Program, Makassar State University

4Study Program of Sociology, Makassar State University


*Corresponding Author

Agung Sutriyawan


Article History

Received: 20.04.2022

Accepted: 01.04.2022

Published: 10.05.2022


Abstract: Background: The coronavirus pandemic is the focus of the government. The effort to reduce the rate of transmission is to take precautions. One of the preventions that can be done is to use a mask. Aim: The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship between Knowledge, Attitudes, and Motivation with Obedience Using masks as COVID-19 Transmission. Method: The study was a cross-sectional study, a sampling technique using Snowball, a semi-structured online questionnaire developed using google forms. Participants in the study were those with social media accounts and had access to the Internet. Data analysis uses a chi-square test of significance values of 5% (0.05). Results: Variables associated with obedience using mask are knowledge (p=0.000), attitude (0.00), and motivation (0.004). Conclusion: The conclusion of this study is significant factors related to obedience using masks are knowledge, attitude, and motivation. It is recommended to conduct health education to the public to increase knowledge, and public awareness in making efforts to prevent COVID-19.


Keywords: COVID-19, obedience using mask, knowledge, attitude, motivation.


INTRODUCTION

The current coronavirus pandemic is the focus of almost all over the world because of the rapid spread of this virus even in Indonesia (Wiranti et al., 2020). Coronavirus Disease 2019 or COVID-19 is an infectious disease caused by a new type of coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2). Whom data shows that the number of COVID-19 cases globally in February 2021 was recorded at 112 million cases, with a total of 2.5 million deaths. Based on the regional mapping of South-East Asia, Indonesia is in the 2nd position with a number of cases of 1.3 million and the number of deaths of 35 thousand cases (World Health Organization, 2021). Efforts were made to suppress the spread of COVID-19 cases the government made a circular for the implementation of 3M health protocols (Wearing masks, washing hands, maintaining distance, and avoiding crowds). COVID-19 Task Force data, mask compliance rate 55%, and 39% keeping distance and avoiding crowding figures. Based on the comparison of the health protocol compliance graph with the addition of positive cases, it can be concluded that the decline in health protocol compliance is in line with the increase in the addition of positive cases of COVID-19 (Satgas Penanganan COVID-19, 2021).


Previous research has suggested that a factor that can affect compliance is knowledge, because a good knowledge of a problem, its impact, and prevention efforts, can affect a person in obeying a recommendation. Furthermore, attitude, by having a positive response or perception to a problem, can affect the action to be done. Then motivation, with encouragement both from within and from outside regarding the recommendations that must be done can be one of the factors that can affect compliance in implementing health protocols (Afrianti & Rahmiati, 2021a).


The spread of COVID-19 based on provincial data, the highest cases are in DKI Jakarta and West Java Provinces (Satgas COVID-19, 2021) The percentage of compliance data wearing masks in West Java Province decreased from the previous week to 83.71% and the compliance presentation kept the distance by 81.76%. Based on Regency / City Data on the spread of COVID-19 cases on May 3, 2021, the highest in Depok City was 49,995 cases and Bekasi City as many as 44,180 cases. While the city of Bandung is in the 4th position with a number of confirmed cases as many as 19,978 cases, with all sub-districts in the city of Bandung included in the potential for transmission and the risk of transmission into the medium category (Pusat Informasi & Koordinasi COVID-19, 2021). Judging from the map of community compliance in the use of masks in the city of Bandung on January 25-31 to 91.12%. Compliance data in maintaining distance and avoiding Bandung crowds on January 25-31 means that the level of community compliance has been good in wearing masks and maintaining distance, but COVID-19 cases have still increased.


The preliminary study was conducted randomly on the people of Bandung City in March 2021. The survey was conducted on 20 people, obtained 11 people do not wear masks (55%). The reason respondents do not comply with health protocols, is because they do not know the benefits of wearing masks and health protocols, the public also still assumes that wearing masks makes them crowded and troublesome. In addition, there is no desire or motivation of the community to implement health protocols. The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship between Knowledge, Attitudes, and Motivation with Obedience Using masks as COVID-19 Transmission.


METHOD

The type of research used is quantitative with cross-sectional design. The goal is to find out the relationship between independent variables and dependent variables (Sutriyawan, 2021). This approach is carried out to determine the factors that affect compliance with wearing masks, washing hands, and maintaining distance as an effort to prevent the transmission of COVID-19. Sampling techniques using Snowball. Semi-structured online questionnaires are developed using google forms, with consent forms also available. Questionnaire links are sent via email, WhatsApp, Facebook, or other social media to respondents. This study is an online study, participants who can participate in this study if they have a social media account and have access to the Internet.


Data analysis that uses descriptive analysis to look at frequency distribution and percentage characteristics (age, gender, education, and occupation), Knowledge, Attitudes, and Motivation with Obedience Using Mask. The next analysis used the chi-square test to determine the influence of each variable on community compliance in the application of 3M with a significance value of 5% (0.05).


RESULT

Table 1 explains that the most were aged 31-40 years (49.4%), most were female (62.6%), and many as 35.8% graduated from college.


Table. 1 Characteristic of Respondents

Characteristics of Respondents

Frequency

Percentage

Age



20 Years

5

0,5

21-30 Years

241

25,2

31-40 Years

473

49,4

41-50 Years

155

16,2

51-60 Years

57

5,9

> 60 years old

27

2,8

Gender



Man

358

37,4

Woman

600

62,6

Education



Not School

46

4,8

End of Elementary School

106

11,1

End of junior high school

138

14,4

After high school

325

33,9

College Graduation

343

35,8

Total

958

100,0

Table 2 explains that the majority of respondents are knowledgeable (59.5%), most respondents' attitudes are positive (54%), more than half are highly motivated (56.1%), and most respondents obediently use masks (63,4%)


Table 2. Distribution of frequency of Knowledge, Attitude, Motivation, and Obedience Using Mask

Variable

Frequency

Percentage

Knowledge



Less

388

40,5

Good

570

59,5

Attitude



Negative

441

46,0

Positive

517

54,0

Motivation



Low

421

43,9

Tall

537

56,1

Obedience Using Mask



Disobedient

351

36,6

Obedient

607

63,4

Total

958

100,0

Table 3. Explains that the variables associated with Obedience Using Mask are knowledge (p=0.000), attitude (0.00), and motivation (0.004)


Table 3. Relationship of Knowledge, Attitude, and Motivation with Obedience Using Mask as a Transmission of COVID-19

Variable

Obedience Using Mask

Total

P-Value

POR

(95% CI)

Disobedient

Obedient

n

%

n

%

n

%

Knowledge







0,000

2,303

(1,759-3,015)

Less

187

48,2

201

51,8

388

100

Good

164

28,8

406

71,2

570

100

Attitude







0,000

1,834

(1,406-2,393)

Negative

195

44,2

246

361

441

100

Positive

156

30,2

55,8

69,8

517

100

Motivation







0,004

1,486

(1,140-1,936)

Low

176

41,8

245

58,2

421

100

Tall

175

32,6

362

67,4

537

100


DISCUSSION

The results showed that there was an influence of knowledge on compliance with wearing masks as prevention of COVID-19 transmission, with a chance of compliance of 2.3 times. In line with the results of previous research that showed that there is a relationship between public knowledge and compliance with the use of masks (D. P. Sari & Sholihah‘Atiqoh, 2020). Other research also states that there is a significant relationship between knowledge and COVID-19 prevention behavior in the community (Mujiburrahman et al., 2020). Other studies state that there is no association that adolescents' level of knowledge about COVID-19 with compliance in implementing health protocols (Anggreni & Safitri, 2020).


Most of the respondents had good knowledge, which is 59.5%. Compliance with wearing masks as an effort to prevent COVID-19 in well-informed respondents among as much as 71.2%. This shows that having good knowledge can be a factor in the prevention of COVID-19 by wearing a mask. The high knowledge in this study is also supported by the high level of education most respondents are in higher education (high school and college). A high level of education of a person will be easier to get information about a problem (Yanti et al., 2020). Indonesia is currently still unable to suppress the transmission of COVID-19 effectively. COVID-19 is still showing an increase in positive confirmed cases above 1000 cases per day, therefore Knowledge is considered important in efforts to prevent COVID-19, if the public has good knowledge, it is expected that the public will be more obedient to the COVID-19 prevention efforts recommended by the Indonesian government, namely implementing 3M (wearing masks, washing hands and maintaining distance) (Sutriyawan, Akbar, et al., 2021).


The results showed that there was an attitude towards compliance with wearing masks as prevention of COVID-19 transmission, with a 1.8-time chance of compliance. In line with previous research that showed that there is a close contact attitude relationship to make efforts to prevent the transmission of COVID-19 (Krisdiyani & Fatah, 2021). In line with research in Medan City which states that there is an attitude relationship with COVID-19 health protocols (Tetartor et al., 2021).


Most of the respondents in this study had a positive attitude of 56.1%. Compliance with wearing masks as an effort to prevent COVID-19 in respondents who have a positive attitude of 69.8%. This shows that someone with a positive attitude can be a factor in the prevention of COVID-19 by obediently using a mask. The decrease in the percentage of community compliance is influenced by factors of indifference or indifference to themselves and others, dissatisfaction with the implementation of government regulations, and saturation of government policies that do not solve problems (R. K. Sari, 2021).


Negative attitudes will tend to accept and respond only without making persistent efforts to maintain their health (Putra et al., 2021). This proves that attitudes will affect a person's behavior to prevent COVID-19. Previous research conducted in Indonesia stated that if people have an optimistic attitude toward the prevention of COVID-19, the community will take precautions against COVID-19, namely not traveling to crowded places, and using masks (Sutriyawan, Akbar, et al., 2021).


The results showed that there was a motivational relationship to compliance with wearing masks as prevention of COVID-19 transmission, with a 1.4-time chance of compliance. In line with research in Banda Aceh which states that there is a motivating influence on community compliance with implementing health protocols (Afrianti & Rahmiati, 2021b) There are several factors that can affect compliance such as knowledge, motivation, perception, and confidence in efforts to control and prevent disease (Hutagaol & Wulandari, 2021).


Most of the respondents in this study had a high motivation of 56.1%. Compliance with wearing masks as an effort to prevent COVID-19 in respondents who have high motivation as much as 67.4%. This shows that the more motivated a person will encourage to comply with wearing masks as an effort to prevent the transmission of COVID-19. The high motivation of these respondents is also due to a large number of well-informed respondents. Knowledge is proven to increase the motivation for COVID-19 prevention. The results of previous studies prove that there is a significant relationship between knowledge and motivation for COVID-19 prevention in the use of personal protective equipment (PPE). Those with good knowledge are 8 times more likely to have COVID-19 prevention motivation compared to health workers who have good knowledge (Sutriyawan, Fitriyani, et al., 2021).


CONCLUSION

This study concludes that most people obediently use masks (63.4%). Significant factors related to adherence to using masks are knowledge, attitude, and motivation. It is recommended to conduct health education to the public to increase knowledge, and public awareness in making efforts to prevent COVID-19


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